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Crazy-Makers: Dealing with Passive-Aggressive People

Why Are People Mean? Don't Take It Personally!

When You Have Been Betrayed

Struggling to Forgive: An Inability to Grieve

Happy Habits: 50 Suggestions

The Secret of Happiness: Let It Find You (But Make the Effort)

Excellence vs. Perfection

Depression is Not Sadness

Conflict in the Workplace

Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

20 Steps to Better Self-Esteem

7 Rules and 8 Methods for Responding to Passive-aggressive People

Promoting Healthy Behavior Change

10 Common Errors in CBT

What to Do When Your Jealousy Threatens to Destroy Your Marriage

Rejection Sensitivity, Irrational Jealousy and Impact on Relationships

For Women Only: How to Have the Relationship of Your Dreams

What to Do When Your Partner's Jealousy Threatens to Destroy Your Relationship

Making Attributions for a Healthier Attitude

Happiness is An Attitude

Thinking Your Way to a Healthy Weight

Guide to How to Set Achieveable Goals

The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

Co-Dependency: An Issue of Control

The Pillars of the Self-Concept: Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy

Catastrophe? Or Inconvenience?


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Audio Version of Article: Crazy-Makers: Passive-Aggressive People

Audio Version of Article: Why Are People Mean? Don't Take It Personally!

Audio Version of Article: Happiness Is An Attitude

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How You Can Be More Resistant to Workplace Bullying

Are You Passive Aggressive and Want to Change?

When Your Loved One Refuses Help

The Porcupine Effect: Pushing Others Away When You Want to Connect

What if You Considered Other Peoples' Views?

5 Common Microaggressions Against Those With Mental Illness

What to Expect from Mindfulness-based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (MCBT) When You Have Depression and Anxiety

Does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Lack Compassion? It Depends Upon the Therapist

When Needs Come Into Conflict

What to Do When Anger Hurts Those You Love

A Brief Primer On the Biology of Stress and How CBT Can Help

50 Tools for Panic and Anxiety

Coping With Change: Psychological Flexibility

Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Ending a Bad Relationship

I'm Depressed. I'm Overwhelmed. Where Do I Start?


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Change Yourself--Don't Wait for the World to Change

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Thinking Your Way to a Healthy Weight

Lies You Were Told

Probability and OCD

Choosing Happiness

Magic Bubbles for Children

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Cloud Castles for Children

Hot Air Balloon Motivation

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January 12, 2017       

Evaluating Psychological Information in the Information Age

by Monica A. Frank, Ph.D.
coffee and a magazine
A problem frequently discussed today is how much inaccurate information we consume on a daily basis. Certainly, most of us know to question information that comes from the neighborhood gossip. But what about information from what we believe to be reliable news sources? We will never stop the proliferation of false information but we can become better consumers of information.

Waiting in a doctor's office I picked up a popular women's magazine and was confronted with another misrepresentation of psychological research. It said “studies show that having unused vacation days makes you less likely to get a raise” and concluded with “so force yourself (to take a vacation) and you may just come back to a bigger paycheck.” Other than the obvious fluff this article illustrates some of the problems with the reporting of psychological information.

What are the problems with this statement?

1) No identification. I haven't read these “studies” they refer to because they didn't indicate where they obtained the information. I realize that magazines don't provide citations. However, most at least provide a name of an author or the university where the study was completed so that the research can be tracked down. Instead, this magazine just referred to some allusive “studies.”

2) Inferring causality. Knowing how psychological research is conducted, I doubt the study said “makes” which is a statement of causality. In other words, it is the same thing as saying “unused vacation days causes you to not get a raise.” The only way research can make such a statement is if they did a randomized study. In this case it would mean having two groups of people at the same workplace who participated in a study their boss didn't know about and one group didn't take vacation days while the other did. That does not sound like a practical study, does it? So, at the most, this research could only show a relationship between vacation days and pay.

3) Other explanations. Since the research can only show a relationship, it can't tell the why of that relationship. For instance, maybe people who take vacation days are more confident and assertive. This is what is known as a “third variable.” So it's possible that it is not the vacation days that causes people to be paid more but personality factors influence both pay and whether a person takes vacation days.

4) Reverse reasoning. Even if the research does show that not taking vacation days is related to not getting a raise, that doesn't mean the reverse is true: that taking a vacation might lead to a raise as this magazine article states. This is reverse reasoning. A very common example is when the research that indicates most abusers were abused as children is reversed to say most abused children will grow up to be abusers. Reversing the research is a completely misleading statement.

Why is this important?

We are confronted daily with information that influences our lives. We make decisions based upon this information. Maybe a lot of the time it doesn't have a tremendous impact on our lives but sometimes it can such as when you are making health choices or major decisions.

For instance, widely publicized research indicating that C-PAP machines don't reduce heart disease may lead some people to not use their C-PAP as instructed. Yet, a careful reading of the research shows that the possible reason for the conclusion is that people aren't using the C-PAP long enough (study participants averaged 3.3 hours a night on the machine when 6 hours is optimal). The popular media didn't report this aspect of the study but instead had glaring headlines that C-PAP doesn't help heart disease (further reading).

Using inaccurate information can lead to poor decisions. So it is important to question the information you read or view. The above provides a few guidelines for doing so.


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