PsychNotes July 2010
by Monica A. Frank, Ph.D.
JULY 29, 2010
TIME PLUS VALUE: EQUATION FOR FORGIVENESS?
In a mathematical mapping of the process of forgiveness, McCullough et.al.
(2010) showed that forgiveness tends to increase as the length of time
since the transgression increases and that people are more likely to be
forgiving based upon the amount of value they give to the relationship with the offender.
McCullough, M.E., Luna, L.R., Berry, J.W., Tabak, B.A.
and Bono, G. (2010). On the form and function of forgiving: Modeling the
time-forgiveness relationship and testing the valuable relationships hypothesis.
Emotion, 10, 2010, 358-376.
JULY 24, 2010
DO YOU BELIEVE YOU CAN LOSE WEIGHT?
Weight loss is an elusive goal for many people. However, many people
who attempt to lose weight may not have high self-efficacy regarding
weight loss. In other words, those more likely to engage in the necessary
weight loss behaviors are those who believe they are capable of losing
weight. Yet, Linde et.al (2006) found that even high self-efficacy did
not predict weight loss after active treatment. Possibly this may be
due to the influence of the treatment itself upon self-efficacy.
Linde, J.A., Rothman, A.J., Baldwin, A.S., Jeffery, R.W.
(2006). The impact of self-efficacy on behavior change and weight change
among overweight participants in a weight loss trial. Health Psychology, 25,
JULY 18, 2010
MARITAL CONFLICT: WHEN BAD IS GOOD AND WHEN ITS BAD
When couples who have minor relationship problems engage in direct
negative behaviors such as rejection, criticism, blaming, and making
demands they suffer more significant decreased satisfaction in their
relationship than couples who are having more serious problems (McNulty and Russell, 2010).
Possibly, the difference could be due to couples willing to overlook
negative behaviors when under considerable stress because they consider
the behaviors unusual and forgivable. As a result, the behaviors are a
release of emotions and tension which could have a positive overall
effect. However, the same negative behaviors when there are only
minor problems indicate more of a personality problem which is
unacceptable to the partner and causes more dissatisfaction with
McNulty, J.K. and Russell, V.M. (2010) When
“negative” behaviors are positive: A contextual analysis of the
long-term effects of problem-solving behaviors on changes in
relationship satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 98, 2010, 587-604.
JULY 13, 2010
EFFECTS OF INTROVERSION WHEN A PERSON HAS
Panic Disorder sometimes involves agoraphobia which is defined as the avoidance
of situations due to the fear of having a panic attack. This avoidance may be
due to fear that the panic attack will cause something bad such as having a
car accident, fear of not having help, or fear of what others may think if
they observe the panic attack.
Rosellini et.al. (2010) found that individuals who engage in agoraphobic
avoidance are more likely to have an introverted personality style. This
is consistent with the idea that they may be concerned about what others
think if they have a panic attack. Unfortunately, the agoraphobic
avoidance usually involves greater severity and interference with life
functioning than Panic Disorder without avoidance.
Rosellini, A.J., Lawrence, A.E., Meyer, J.F. Brown, T.A. (2010).
The effects of extraverted temperament on agoraphobia in panic disorder. Journal
of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 420-426.
JULY 10, 2010
INTELLIGENCE, HEALTH AND HAPPINESS
Individuals with greater mental ability are generally more educated regarding success
behaviors in health, work, and life and more likely to engage in healthy behaviors
and to have greater occupational success. Therefore, they tend to have higher levels
of satisfaction, better health, and greater financial well-being. However, these
effects aren't necessarily due to the greater mental ability but due to engaging
in behaviors that lead to success, health, and happiness.
Judge, T.A., Ilies, R. and Dimotakis, N. (2010) Are health and
happiness the product of wisdom? The relationship of general mental ability to
educational and occupational attainment, health, and well-being. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 95, 454-468.
JULY 7, 2010
CBT REDUCES ANXIETY DURING BREAST CANCER TREATMENT
Not only do women diagnosed with breast cancer struggle with the physical
consequences of the cancer and treatment, but they also experience
significant anxiety and fearful thoughts that demand energy that is
limited supply and that affect the quality of life. Research shows
that group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management treatment can
not only help women while going through cancer treatment but that the
effects are beneficial for at least nine months after the treatment
Antoni, M. H., Wimberly, S. R., Lechner, S. C., Kazi, A., Sifre, T.,
Urcuyo, K. R., Phillips, K., Smith, R. G., Petronis, V. M., Guellati, S., Wells, K. A.,
Blomberg, B., & Carver, C. S. (2006). Stress management intervention reduces cancer-specific
thought intrusions and anxiety symptoms among women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1791-1797.